Journal of Extension Education <p><strong>The <em>Journal of Extension Education (JEE)</em> is a peer-reviewed open-access journal in the field of extension education published by the Extension Education Society (EES).</strong></p>The journal is published in both <em>print</em> and <em>online</em><em> </em>versions. [<strong>Print ISSN: 0971-3123; Online ISSN: 2456-1282</strong>]. The CODEN assigned to JEE is <strong><em>JEEOBM</em> .</strong><br /><p><strong><br /></strong></p> Extension Education Society (EES) en-US Journal of Extension Education 0971-3123 <p><span>Authors who publish with JEE agree to the following terms:</span><br /><br /></p><ol type="a"><ul><li>Authors retain copyright and grant JEE right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li></ul></ol><ol type="a"><ul><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li></ul></ol><ol type="a"><ul><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ul></ol><p>Extension Education Society</p><p><a href=""></a></p><p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></p><p>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Edu-Communication Strategies of Cashew Production in a Rural Ghanaian Community <p><em>This study examined the edu-communication strategies that agriculture extension service </em><em>agencies use in the dissemination and promotion of innovation adoption among cashew farmers in the </em><em>Kpandai district agricultural zones in Northern Ghana. A total of 140 cashew farmers were sampled using </em><em>simple random sampling technique. Three District Agricultural Officers (DAO) and twenty-one satellite </em><em>Agriculture Extension Officers (AEO) were also drawn into the sample. The results of the study show </em><em>that, face to face interaction, field demonstration, entertainment- education through community radio </em><em>broadcasting and Farmer Group Discussions (FGDs) were extensively and efficiently used by the AEOs </em><em>to promote adoption of improved production technologies among cashew farmers. The study discovered </em><em>that EduCom strategies contribute to higher rates of adoption and partly accounts for increased cashew </em><em>yields in the study area. The indigenisation of agriculture extension services approaches using local </em><em>language in the design and dissemination of adoption process is, highly recommended as a core tenet of </em><em>technology dissemination if higher adoption rates are expected.</em></p> Bismark Kwaku Anyarayor Mohammed Faisal Amadu Amin Alhassan Copyright (c) 2020 2021-10-03 2021-10-03 32 3 10.26725/JEE.2020.3.32.6532-6541 Occupational Aspirations of the Participants of Agricultural Skill Training in Kerala <p><em>'Skilled India' is the ambitious mission of Government of India. Krishi Vigyan Kendras, with the </em><em>support of qualification packs and model curriculum developed by Agricultural Skill Council of India, are </em><em>organizing skill trainings besides providing the post-training technical handholding. Training, similar to </em><em>formal education, mould the aspirations of trainees to pursue occupational choices. The paper presents </em><em>the occupational aspirations of 277 participants of 16 training programmes on 11 job roles related to </em><em>agriculture in nine districts of Kerala. Most prominent aspiration was to ‘start a new enterprise’, which </em><em>is in line with the objective of creating entrepreneurs in rural areas. Post-training aspirations indicated </em><em>enhanced aspiration to get a job in government/recognized institutions, an indicator of increased selfconfidence </em><em>and employability of trained manpower. Occupational aspirations varied with job roles and </em><em>thus provide crucial feedback to policy makers and development agencies for working on future roadmap.</em></p> Chandre M J Gowda Copyright (c) 2020 2021-10-03 2021-10-03 32 3 10.26725/JEE.2020.3.32.6542-6551 Perceived Entrepreneurial Training Needs of Trainees of Krishi Vigyan Kendras in Kerala <p><em>The present study was conducted in the state of Kerala to analyse the training needs of 100 </em><em>trainees of five Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVK). The findings indicated that the packaging &amp; marketing </em><em>of mushroom and post harvest handling value addition were the most preferred training areas by </em><em>the KVK trainees in mushroom production. In apiculture, honey extraction essential operations was </em><em>perceived as the most needed area of training. In the area of value addition of fruits and vegetables, </em><em>technology upgradation and packaging marketing techniques were the most preferred areas by the </em><em>trainees. Relational analysis revealed that socio-economic variables like educational status and annual </em><em>income, communication variables like extension contact and mass media exposure and entrepreneurial </em><em>variables like entrepreneurial intention, entrepreneurial need, entrepreneurial capacity, innovativeness,</em><br /><em>achievement motivation, decision making ability, risk orientation, self confidence, cosmopoliteness and</em><br /><em>economic motivation were found positively and significantly correlated with training needs. The KVKs</em><br /><em>should take concrete efforts to organize need based entrepreneurship development training programmes</em><br /><em>to improve effectiveness.</em></p> Gayathri B. R. Binoo P. Bonny Copyright (c) 2020 2021-10-03 2021-10-03 32 3 10.26725/JEE.2020.3.32.6552-6559 Participation of Household Women in Undertaking Plant Health Management Practices in Home Gardens <p><em>Women in the agricultural sector in India, particularly in Bihar face many socio-economic, </em><em>educational and legal obstacles in realizing benefits of their efforts. This study assessed the role of women </em><em>in untertaking plant health management practices in home gardens. One hundred households were </em><em>interviewed and data were analyzed. The study indicated that decisions related to vegetable production </em><em>and marketing within home gardens were mainly taken by women while the decisions on cereal and pulse </em><em>crop production, management and utilization were made mainly by men. Men were the main decision </em><em>makers in the management and utilization of cash crops that grow in the home garden. From the surveyed </em><em>households, women were main decision makers for the management, consumption and marketing of </em><em>fruit plants. In livestock production and management men were responsible for making decisions in large </em><em>animals like cows while women had very little contribution on deciding about large ruminants. It was </em><em>found that labor-intensive activities like land preparation, planting activities and marketing of products </em><em>were mainly done by men while seed preservation, manuring, weeding and storage of produce were </em><em>mainly done by women. The average time women spend in the home garden was six to eight hour/week </em><em>while men spend four to five hours a week. Policies and strategies need to be developed to enhance the </em><em>benefits of home gardens to both men and women.</em></p> Vandana Kumari Copyright (c) 2020 2021-10-03 2021-10-03 32 3 10.26725/JEE.2020.3.32.6560-6565 MKSP Scheme: An Effective Approach for Uplifting 'Kudumbashree' Farm Women in Kerala <p><em>A study was conducted to assess the perceived effectiveness of Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran </em><em>Pariyojana (MKSP), a women empowerment scheme, in Thrissur district of Kerala. The beneficiary farm </em><em>women of the scheme were cultivating vegetables and banana mostly on leased land under the supervision </em><em>of Kerala State Poverty Eradication Mission (Kudumbasree mission). Dimensions of effectiveness were </em><em>categorized in terms of socio economic development, agricultural input supply, institutional support, </em><em>knowledge and capacity building and empowerment perspective. The respondents included farm </em><em>women, mission coordinators and facilitators. Majority of banana farmers mission coordinators and </em><em>facilitators perceived the effectiveness as good while majority of vegetable farmers, rated it as excellent. </em><em>Empowerment perspective and socio economic development were the most effective outcomes of the </em><em>scheme.</em></p> Rashida V K Mercykutty M J Copyright (c) 2020 2021-10-03 2021-10-03 32 3 10.26725/JEE.2020.3.32.6566-6571 Constraints Encountered in Participation of Women in ‘Kudumbashree’ Activities <p><em>In Kerala state of India, ‘Kudumbashree’ programme was introduced with the intention of uplifting and empowering women engaged in agriculture and allied activities. A study was conducted to analyse the constraints experienced by women in ‘kudumbashree’ activities in Alappuzha district of Kerala. Expost facto research design was followed with a sample size of 120 women. The results revealed that ‘overloading of work’, ‘delayed services of local government’, ‘lack of economic empowerment’, ‘health problems’ and ‘Unsustainable micro enterprises,’ were the major constraints.</em></p> R Deepthy K Kanagasabapathi V Sakthivel Copyright (c) 2020 2021-10-03 2021-10-03 32 3 10.26725/JEE.2020.3.32.6572-6575 Relationship Analysis between Socio-Economic Variables and Job Performance of Accredited Social Health Activists in Maharashtra <p><em>National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) was launched in India in 2005. It brought a new </em><em>concept of Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) in to the arena of health sector of India. Since it is </em><em>a new concept it is imperative to study the effect of socio economic variables on the job performance </em><em>of ASHAs. Coefficient of correlation was applied to carry out the relational analysis between socio-economic </em><em>variables and job performance of ASHAs. It was seen that age was positively related with job </em><em>performance whereas all other independent variables were negatively and significantly related with job </em><em>performance.</em></p> Manjusha Manohar Kharole Copyright (c) 2020 2021-10-03 2021-10-03 32 3 10.26725/JEE.2020.3.32.6576-6578 Extent of Knowledge of Coconut Farmers in Kozhikode District of Kerala <p><em>The present study was conducted among the coconut farmers of Kozhikode district of Kerala to assess the extent of knowledge on coconut cultivation. A total 120 farmers from purposively selected eight panchayats of the district formed the sample. Extent of knowledge of the farmers was measured using a teacher-made test. Based on analysis of data, it was found that more than half of the farmers possessed medium level of knowledge about the recommended coconut farming practices.</em></p> Greeshma Susan Mathew Thomas Allan Copyright (c) 2020 2021-10-03 2021-10-03 32 3 10.26725/JEE.2020.3.32.6579-6582 FROM THE EDITOR'S DESK <p>FROM THE EDITOR'S DESK ; 32(3)</p> <p><em>Extension services during COVID-19 pandemic</em></p> PUTHIRA PRATHAP D Copyright (c) 2020 2021-10-03 2021-10-03 32 3 10.26725/JEE.2020.3.32.6531