Journal of Extension Education <p><strong>The <em>Journal of Extension Education (JEE)</em> is a peer-reviewed open-access journal in the field of extension education published by the Extension Education Society (EES).</strong></p>The journal is published in both <em>print</em> and <em>online</em><em> </em>versions. [<strong>Print ISSN: 0971-3123; Online ISSN: 2456-1282</strong>]. The CODEN assigned to JEE is <strong><em>JEEOBM</em> .</strong><br /><p><strong><br /></strong></p> Extension Education Society (EES) en-US Journal of Extension Education 0971-3123 <p><span>Authors who publish with JEE agree to the following terms:</span><br /><br /></p><ol type="a"><ul><li>Authors retain copyright and grant JEE right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li></ul></ol><ol type="a"><ul><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li></ul></ol><ol type="a"><ul><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ul></ol><p>Extension Education Society</p><p><a href=""></a></p><p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></p><p>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Impact of Watershed Development Projects Implemented in Kerala <p><em>In the present study we look into the impact of 12 different watershed projects implemented in Kerala under the Western Ghats Development Programme on the water availability and soil conservation. The impact of the watersheds was assessed by examining the benefits that each watershed offered to the sample respondents, people participation in watershed programmes at different stages, budget utilization and target achieved with the help of a semi-structured interview schedule. The data collected were analysed using cluster analysis and ANOVA. The results of the data differentiate 12 watersheds into two different clusters with 4 watersheds in one cluster and the remaining watersheds in another. The results of the study found that there is a significant difference in people's participation with respect to different stages of project execution in different watersheds and also within each watershed. The study also pinpoints difference in achieving target and budget utilization among different watersheds.</em></p> Babu Mathew Venu Prasad H D Naveena K Copyright (c) 2021 2022-07-24 2022-07-24 33 1 6531 6543 10.26725/JEE.2021.1.33.6531-6543 Attitude of Agricultural Officers towards Training and their Perceived Constraints <p><em>The present study was undertaken in two zones of Kerala, India. A sample of 90 Agricultural</em><br /><em>Officers (AOs) was randomly selected and information was gathered and analyzed. A well structured </em><em>interview schedule was used for data collection. Attitude of the AOs towards training was measured </em><em>and Garret score ranking method was used to rank the constraints faced by the AOs. The results </em><em>revealed that majority of the Agricultural Officers had neutral attitude towards training and major </em><em>constraints faced by AOs were lack of time for extension activities, lack of transport facilities </em><em>and </em><em>lack of incentives reward system for better performance.</em></p> Raahalya Sandipamu G.S Sreedaya Copyright (c) 2021 2022-07-24 2022-07-24 33 1 6544 6548 10.26725/JEE.2021.1.33.6544-6548 Factors affecting Yield Gap of Rice in North Kerala <p><em>Yield gap is an important indicator for any crop. Rice being the staple food, in order to meet</em><br /><em>the increased demand of rice juxtaposed with an increasing population growth, it </em><em>becomes important to study the factors affecting yield gap that will emerge as the most significant </em><em>solution, which in turn serves to bridge the yield gap. This study was conducted in 7 districts of </em><em>Kerala during the year 2020-2021 to find out the factors affecting the yield gap of rice. Altogether, </em><em>105 rice farmers from the districts of Kasaragod, Kannur, Wayanad, Kozhikode, Malappuram, </em><em>Thrissur formed the sample. Ex-post facto research design was used for the study. The yield gap </em><em>index derived from the study ranged from 10 to 30 per cent. The results of the Principal Component </em><em>Analysis revealed that five components namely climatic factors, biological factors, socio-economic </em><em>factors, institutional/policy related factors and factors related to technology transfer </em><em>were critically </em><em>influencing the yield gap of rice.</em></p> Sneha N Allan Thomas M A Nishan Seema B Copyright (c) 2021 2022-07-24 2022-07-24 33 1 6549 6557 10.26725/JEE.2021.1.33.6549-6557 Women Farmers' Awareness of Government Agricultural Schemes in the North Eastern Region of India <p><em>The Indian agricultural sector employs 4/5th of the female workforce in the country, with </em><em>48% of self-employed farmers being women. Existing literature portrays a wide information gap </em><em>separating the woman farmer from basic knowledge with regards to increasing production, </em><em>efficiency, and income of their farm activities. This paper makes an attempt to study the awareness </em><em>of women farmers in North Eastern Region (NER) of India about active agricultural schemes in the </em><em>country. The findings reveal lack of awareness of governmental agricultural schemes as a lacuna in </em><em>the agricultural progress of women farmers in the NER.</em></p> ANUSHREE BARUAH Madan Mohan G. Copyright (c) 2021 2022-07-24 2022-07-24 33 1 6558 6565 10.26725/JEE.2021.1.33.6558-6565 Agripreneurial Behaviour of Awardee Farmers of Kerala <p><em>The study was conducted in Thiruvananthapuram and Pathanamthitta districts of Kerala to study the agripreneurial behaviour of awardee farmers. Altogether, 70 awardee </em><em>farmers, 35 each from the two districts constituted the sample. The results showed </em><em>that majority of the awardee farmers belonged to medium to high category of </em><em>agripreneurial behaviour. Profile characteristics like decision making ability, dealing with </em><em>failure, creativity and </em><em>trainings acquired had a significant relationship with agripreneurial behaviour.</em></p> Reshma R S G.S. Sreedaya Copyright (c) 2021 2022-07-24 2022-07-24 33 1 6566 6570 10.26725/JEE.2021.1.33.6566-6570 Effectiveness of a Mobile Paddy Expert System in Pest Diagnosis <p><em>'Crop doctor' is a component in a mobile application developed by Tamil Nadu Agricultural </em><em>University (TNAU) for diagnosing pest and diseases in paddy and aids in availing management </em><em>solutions. The study was conducted among paddy growers in Tamil Nadu through an 'after only' </em><em>experimental design to find out the diagnostic usability of 'Crop doctor' in Paddy Expert System </em><em>mobile application of TNAU in diagnosis of pest and disease in paddy. Diagnostic Usability of crop </em><em>doctor component among the respondents revealed that overall effectiveness of the mobile </em><em>application was found to be at 73.20 percent.</em></p> Janarthanan Rengaraju Senthil kumar Manivasagam Copyright (c) 2021 2022-07-24 2022-07-24 33 1 6571 6575 10.26725/JEE.2021.1.33.6571-6575 FROM THE EDITOR'S DESK <p><strong><em>EDITORIAL</em> </strong>OF JOURNAL OF EXTENSION EDUCATION 33 (1)</p> PRATHAP D PUTHIRA Copyright (c) 2021 2022-07-24 2022-07-24 33 1 6530 6530 10.26725/JEE.2021.1.33.6530 A Study on University Students' Stress Levels during the COVID-19 Pandemic <p><em>The current study assessed the stress levels of students of Kerala Agricultural University </em><em>during the COVID-19 pandemic. The sample size was 200. Twenty-four variables were taken for the </em><em>study which revealed that majority of the students was in a distressed condition, </em><em>during the </em><em>pandemic period.</em></p> Deepak I P K N Ushadevi Copyright (c) 2021 2022-07-24 2022-07-24 33 1 6576 6580 10.26725/JEE.2021.1.33.6576-6580