Journal of Extension Education <p><strong>The <em>Journal of Extension Education (JEE)</em> is a peer-reviewed open-access journal in the field of extension education published by the Extension Education Society (EES).</strong></p>The journal is published in both <em>print</em> and <em>online</em><em> </em>versions. [<strong>Print ISSN: 0971-3123; Online ISSN: 2456-1282</strong>]. The CODEN assigned to JEE is <strong><em>JEEOBM</em> .</strong><br /><p><strong><br /></strong></p> Extension Education Society (EES) en-US Journal of Extension Education 0971-3123 <p><span>Authors who publish with JEE agree to the following terms:</span><br /><br /></p><ol type="a"><ul><li>Authors retain copyright and grant JEE right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li></ul></ol><ol type="a"><ul><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li></ul></ol><ol type="a"><ul><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ul></ol><p>Extension Education Society</p><p><a href=""></a></p><p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></p><p>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a>.</p> From the Editor's Desk: EDITORIAL <p>This JEE EDITORIAL 33(4) throws light on the privacy and security principles for farmers to protect farming data.</p> PRATHAP D PUTHIRA Copyright (c) 2021 2023-04-20 2023-04-20 33 4 6682 6682 10.26725/JEE.2021.4.33.6682 Parameters Influencing Attitude of Doctoral Students towards Research <p><em>Researcher's attitude towards research is important while undertaking research for positive</em><br /><em>outcomes. So, this study was conducted to determine the level of attitude of doctoral students by </em><em>exploring its determinants and comparing them with attitude. College of Agriculture, Vellayani, </em><em>Kerala was selected for the study where 50 doctoral students were selected randomly </em><em>and administered with validated questionnaires. Statistical tools like frequency, </em><em>percentage, mean, standard deviation and Pearson correlation coefficient were used. It was found </em><em>that almost 90 per cent of students had favourable attitude towards research. There was </em><em>significant relationship between independent variables like information seeking skill, methodology </em><em>skill, problem solving skill, literature availability, research material availability, research </em><em>work environment, non-advisory </em><em>committee members support and attitude of students towards their research.</em></p> Spanditha Muppidi Allan Thomas Copyright (c) 2021 2023-04-20 2023-04-20 33 4 6683 6690 10.26725/JEE.2021.4.33.6683-6690 Sources of Information and their Role in Influencing the Decision-Making Process among the Brackish Water Cage Farming Community in Kerala <p><em>In recent years, the Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies (KUFOS) along with the</em><br /><em>State Fisheries Department has been promoting brackish water cage farming by providing extensive </em><em>online and field-level technical support to the farmers. There are various sources from which </em><em>farmers gather information for adopting cage culture. A study was carried out among the brackish </em><em>water cage farmers located in different regions of Kerala to identify the significance of various </em><em>sources of information in adopting sustainable cage culture practices. The information </em><br /><em>platforms having various sorts of tools and methodologies are generally categorized into four: </em><br /><em>print media, visual media, social media, and the traditional type of training programme. All the </em><br /><em>sources selected for the study are a rich repository of information and insights on the subject </em><br /><em>under discussion. From the study, it was possible to identify the sources of information according </em><br /><em>to the magnitude of popularity among various farmers and corelating the same with the rate of </em><br /><em>adoption of a technology. The maximum number of farmers gathered information through training </em><em>programme. Least number of farmers with mean score of 208 utilized print media as a medium to </em><em>gather information on cage </em><em>culture.</em></p> Unnikrishnan KV Dinesh K Copyright (c) 2021 2023-04-20 2023-04-20 33 4 6691 6699 10.26725/JEE.2021.4.33.6691-6699 Analysis of Profitability of Commercial Dog Breeding Ventures in Thrissur and Ernakulam Districts of Kerala <p><em>Kerala's commercial dog breeding enterprise is a promising one with the potential to reduce</em><br /><em>youth unemployment and provide a livelihood. However, the state lacks authentic information on </em><br /><em>factors affecting profitability of commercial dog breeding business. The present study was </em><br /><em>conducted to identify the association between factors that affect profitability of commercial dog </em><br /><em>breeding in Kerala. The study was conducted using an ex-post facto research design on </em><br /><em>60 commercial dog breeding units selected randomly from Thrissur and Ernakulam districts of Kerala.</em><em>Data collection was done using a pretested-structured interview schedule. Study revealed that years </em><em>of experience, number of dogs reared, number of puppies born, cost of veterinary care, level of </em><em>adoption and labour cost were correlated with profitability of commercial dog breeding enterprise.</em></p> Rashmi Ravindranath VARANI HOUSE T. S. RAJEEV Reeja George P Safeer M. Saifudeen Copyright (c) 2021 2023-04-20 2023-04-20 33 4 6700 6706 10.26725/JEE.2021.4.33.6700-6706 Impact of Agricultural Extension Institutions on Farm Efficiency among Rice Farmers in Kerala, India <p><em>This study assesses the role of agricultural extension institutions in improving efficiency of </em><em>rice production in Kerala, India. Data were collected through a primary survey of 72 purposively </em><em>selected rice farmers. Three major extension institutions were identified. Satisfaction of farmers </em><em>from extension was measured using principal component analysis and technical efficiency through </em><em>Stochastic Frontier Analysis. Satisfaction scores were poor. However, extension services were found </em><em>to be significantly contributing to technical efficiency of rice production. Efficiency of extension </em><em>services could be improved through reforms in the current institutional structure.</em></p> Anikha S Kumar Shaijumon C S Copyright (c) 2021 2023-04-20 2023-04-20 33 4 6707 6717 10.26725/JEE.2021.4.33.6707-6717 Socioeconomic Status and its Association with Economic Motivation among the Dairy Entrepreneurs of Kerala <p><em>The study analyzed the socioeconomic variables of the dairy entrepreneurs of Kerala (India)</em><br /><em>and their relationship with economic motivation; specifically, in the three physiographical regions </em><br /><em>of highland, midland and lowland. Data were collected through survey using structured interview. </em><br /><em>The results revealed that maximum number of dairy entrepreneurs were male and belonged to elderly </em><em>group. They were educated mostly up to secondary level and had dairying experience of fewer than 13 </em><em>years. Largely herd size was between 12-22 animals; and possession of farm assets was weaker than </em><em>household assets. Majority of the entrepreneurs had gross annual income of below ₹25 lakh from sale </em><em>of milk and milk products; and local/private sales were more beneficial than co-operative sales. The </em><em>results showed variance in the socioeconomic variables among the three divisions and hence demands </em><em>exclusive entrepreneurship development strategies. Regression analysis showed that while milk </em><em>production and household assets were positively related; experience and sales to dairy cooperatives </em><em>were negatively related to the economic motivation of the dairy entrepreneurs.</em></p> Shyam Suraj S R Copyright (c) 2021 2023-04-20 2023-04-20 33 4 6718 6730 10.26725/JEE.2021.4.33.6718-6730 ICT-Use Behaviour of Agricultural Line Department Officials Of Odisha <p><em>Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools will play a prime role in agriculture </em><em>and allied sectors in future. This study was conducted in 2021 to examine the attitude of </em><em>agricultural line department officials towards the use of ICT tools. Purposively Khordha district of </em><em>Odisha was taken for the study. For the present study, 105 respondents (22 district level </em><em>agricultural officials, 59 block level agricultural officials and 24 village level </em><em>agricultural officials) were selected by following stratified random sampling method. The results </em><em>revealed that the district level and block level agricultural officials have most favourable </em><em>attitude towards almost all the ICT tools. In comparison, village level officials favoured </em><em>only Mobile phone and Television. The study has recommended proper awareness, training and </em><em>knowledge of ICT tools, and uninterrupted power </em><em>supply in the offices to rectify the constraints in handling of ICT tools.</em></p> Bhavana Sajeev Copyright (c) 2021 2023-04-20 2023-04-20 33 4 6731 6737 10.26725/JEE.2021.4.33.6731-6737