Journal of Extension Education <p><strong>The <em>Journal of Extension Education (JEE)</em> is a peer-reviewed open-access journal in the field of extension education published by the Extension Education Society (EES).</strong></p>The journal is published in both <em>print</em> and <em>online</em><em> </em>versions. [<strong>Print ISSN: 0971-3123; Online ISSN: 2456-1282</strong>]. The CODEN assigned to JEE is <strong><em>JEEOBM</em> .</strong><br /><p><strong><br /></strong></p> en-US <p><span>Authors who publish with JEE agree to the following terms:</span><br /><br /></p><ol type="a"><ul><li>Authors retain copyright and grant JEE right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li></ul></ol><ol type="a"><ul><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li></ul></ol><ol type="a"><ul><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ul></ol><p>Extension Education Society</p><p><a href=""></a></p><p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></p><p>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a>.</p> (Dr. D Puthira Prathap) (JEE Technical Support) Mon, 29 Mar 2021 01:19:41 +0000 OJS 60 From the Editor's Desk <p> </p> <p><span style="color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.87); font-family: 'Noto Serif', -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen-Sans, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;"><strong>Editorial of 32 (2);</strong> <em>Science Communication and Extension Education</em><br /></span></p> D PUTHIRA PRATHAP Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Utilization of selected Information Technology Enabled Systems (ITES) by agricultural extensionists of Kerala <p><cite>Several information technology enabled systems (ITES) are available for providing valuable information to agricultural extensionists which in turn would help them to assist famers, and increase crop production. The present study was aimed at assessment of knowledge and extent of use of selected ITES among agricultural extensionists of Kerala. </cite><em>Data were collected from randomly selected 60 computer literate agricultural officers and 60 computer literate agricultural assistants of Kerala State. The study revealed that knowledge of agricultural extensionists on web browsing and agricultural portals was comparatively higher. The knowledge of agricultural expert system and digitized databases was found to be very low, with 79 percent and 81 percent respectively falling in the low category. On the other hand the extent of use of all the selected ITES was found low among the agricultural extensionists. This points figures towards the need of sensitizing agricultural extensionists on the importance and value of ITES.</em></p> Boniface P J, Jose AM, Sakeer Husain A Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Extension Education Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Perceived Effects of Adoption of Recommended Practices among Rural Farmers of Nigeria <p><em>The study assessed the perceived effects of recommended practices on levels of hygienic practices,</em><br /><em>health-care Expenditure, and productive time for Agricultural Activities and children school attendances </em><em>among the rural farmers in Mokwa Local Government area of Niger State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling </em><em>technique was used to select 311 of rural populace. Data were collected using structured questionnaire </em><em>as well as interview schedule and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The mean age of the respondents </em><em>was 46 years while the mean household size was 9 persons. Also, the mean years of experience was 20.8 </em><em>years while 41.4% of the respondents had primary education. The mean household income was Nigerian </em><em>Naira N175,500.00. The serious constraints to adoption of recommended practices were bad attitude </em><em>and lack of credit facilities It is recommended that environmental health workers should be empowered </em><em>to enforce sanctions on noncompliance with adoption of recommended practices and efforts should be </em><em>made by stakeholders to sustain this channel of sensitization.</em></p> Mohammed Usman, J J Pelemo Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 An Economic Appraisal of Composite Carp Culture in West Bengal <p><em>Aquaculture sector is gaining momentum through its contribution towards Indian as well as</em><br /><em>world economy in terms of nutritional and livelihood security. Carp farming is one of the most widely </em><em>adopted technologies in aquaculture sector. The study was carried out in randomly selected South 24 </em><em>Parganas district of West Bengal. The study aims at assessing economic viability of composite carp </em><em>culture through analyzing the cost and returns of the technology. Data were collected from 142 fish </em><em>farmers through personal interview. The average pond area of the farmers was found to be 1.9 acre and </em><em>mean fish yield was 3.6 t/ha/yr. Rate of return on total investment (ROI) and Benefit-Cost ratio (B: C </em><em>ratio) for adopters and non-adopters were worked out as 85.84%; 1.86 and 63.03%; 1.63 respectively. </em><em>Supplementary feed constituted the maximum share in cost of production of fish followed by lease value </em><em>of pond and pond preparation cost. The study implies composite carp culture technology as economically </em><em>feasible with impressive benefit-cost ratio.</em></p> Himansu Kumar De, Simantini Shasani, Manoj Kumar Das, Gour Sundar Saha Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Extension Education Mon, 29 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Socio-Economic Analysis of Brackishwater Cage Culture in Kerala <p align="left"><em>Cage culture has been one of the most dependable fish production systems in the world. For wide adoption in countries like India, it needs to be technically feasible and socially acceptable. In the current study, the socio economic factors are taken into account for investigating the influence of these factors on the performance and productivity of the cage culture operations in central Kerala. An extensive survey was carried out among the cage farmers of the coastal districts of central Kerala to study the influence of socio-economic indicators in the overall production and performance. The study revealed that major socioeconomic features like age, occupation, level of education, experience in cage culture, technical skill, financial status and gender participation had significant effects on the cage culture productivity and economic returns.</em></p> Unnikrishnan KV, Dinesh K Copyright (c) 2020 Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Employability Skills - A Perception of Agricultural Students, Graduates and Employers <p><em>Agricultural universities are at the helm in giving sound technical knowledge to the students </em><em>of agriculture, but many a time the students fail in expressing the real aptitude for the requirement of </em><em>the agriculture industry. The study was conducted to bring an insight into the skill requirement of the </em><em>industry and how the students have perceived their own capabilities in various aspects. It was found </em><em>that there is variation between what the students perceived as important skills and what the industry </em><em>requires. The students felt that they were competent in listening, self motivation and interpersonal </em><em>relations while the employers expressed that problem solving and analytics, visioning and creativity are </em><em>the core employability skills needed for the industry.</em></p> Shibi Sebastian Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 29 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Entrepreneurial Potential of Apipreneurs in South Kerala <p><em>The paper assessed the apipreneurs of Kerala based on their entrepreneurial potential. Ex post </em><em>facto research design was followed for the study conducted during 2019-2020. The location of the </em><em>study was South Kerala focusing on three districts viz., Pathanamthitta, Idukki and Kottayam. Seventy-five </em><em>apipreneurs were randomly selected for the study. Based on the study it was found that about 69 </em><em>per cent of the apipreneurs had medium level of entrepreneurial potential. The results obtained from </em><em>principal component analysis on the dimensions of entrepreneurial potential, based on Eigen vectors </em><em>revealed that the three dimensions viz., entrepreneurial motivation, management competencies and </em><em>social competencies had influenced the entrepreneurial potential of the apipreneur.</em></p> Devapriya S Kaimal, Allan Thomas, Amritha V S Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Extension Education Mon, 29 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Constraints faced in the Adoption of Technologies by Chawki Rearing Centre Entrepreneurs <p><em>Chawki Rearing Centres (CRCs) act as backbone of silkworm rearing activity. The study was </em><em>conducted in 100 CRCs of six traditional sericultural districts of Karnataka with the objective of </em><em>understanding the constraints faced by CRC entrepreneurs in adoption of recommended technologies. </em><em>Through pilot survey, 30 constraints were identified and they were ranked based on Garrett score. While </em><em>shortage of farm laborers, scarcity of irrigation water, lack of technical guidance in pest and disease </em><em>management, difficulty in harvesting leaf and shootlet alternatively and high labor wages were the major </em><em>constraints in adoption of mulberry leaf production technologies, inadequate rearing space, scarcity of </em><em>skilled workers, lack of space for supporting activities, lack of technical guidance to diagnose diseases and </em><em>high wages of skilled workers were the major constraints in adoption of silkworm rearing technologies. </em><em>Measures to be taken to overcome these constraints are suggested.</em></p> Basavaiah, Chandrashekar Shivappa Kallimani Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Extension Education Mon, 29 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000