Problems and Complexities in Rural Schools of the Himalayan Region: Challenges for Community Development


  • S.K. Panda University of Jammu
  • Ravail Singh Department of Education, University of Jammu



Education; problems; challenges; rural schools, Himalayan region; Jammu & Kashmir


The educational system of rural areas in India especially in the Himalayan region, is facing variousproblems like infrastructure, transportation, communication, and quality education. In the present paper, the focus has been given to identifying the problems and challenges faced by rural schools and factors affecting the quality of education in Himalayan region with particular reference to the Paddar sub-division in Jammu and Kashmir Union Territory. Using purposive sampling technique, data were collected from 19 schools, with 180 students as a sample. The findings of the study revealed that low educational qualifications of both parents, low socioeconomic status and low occupational status of parents were the major factors affecting the quality of education. Natural obstacles like harsh winters, heavy snowfall, a high mountainous area, and a lack of transportation also hinder the progress of education. Hence, there is a need to bring structural changes in the rural schools of Jammu & Kashmir.

Author Biographies

S.K. Panda, University of Jammu

Department of Education, University of Jammu, Jammu, Jammu & Kashmir – 180006

Ravail Singh, Department of Education, University of Jammu

Department of Education, University of Jammu, Jammu, Jammu & Kashmir – 180006


Agrawal, T. (2014). Educational inequality in rural and urban India. International Journal of Educational Development, 34, 11-19.

Annual Status of Education Report (2022). Jammu and Kashmir rural. jammuandkashmir_9.pdf

Atchoarena, D., & Gasperini, L. (2003). Education for Rural Development towards New Policy Responses. International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) UNESCO. Paris,France. ED499625.pdf

Bandyopadhyay, S., Bardhan, A., Dey, P., & Bhattacharyya, S. (2021). Exploring rural– urban education divide in India. In: Bridging the education divide using social technologies. Springer, 33-6738-8_7

Chaudhuri, K., & Roy, S. (2009). Gender gap in educational attainment: evidence from rural India. Education Economics, 17(2), 215-238. abs/10.1080/09645290802472380

Geelani, S. R. (2023, September 12). Rural schools grapple with teacher deficiency, basic facility shortages.GreaterKashmir.

Glewwe, P., Siameh, C., Sun, B., & Wisniewski, S. (2021). School resources and educational outcomes in developing countries. The Routledge Handbook of the Economics of Education, 218-252. system/files/working_papers/w17554/w17554.pdf

Hong, K., & Zimmer, R. (2016). Does investing in school capital infrastructure improve student achievement? Economics of Education Review, 53, 143-158. EBP074733281_0.pdf

Knoeppel, R. C., Verstegen, D. A., & Rinehart, J.S. (2007). What is the relationship between resources and student achievement? A canonical analysis. Journal of Education Finance, 183-202.

Machin, S., McNally, S., & Meghir, C. (2010). Resources and standards in urban schools. Journal of Human Capital, 4(4), 365-393.

Majra, J. P., & Gur, A. (2010). School environment and sanitation in rural India. Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, 2(2), 109-112.

Okoye, P. C., & Nwagwu, A. (2018). Influence of Parents Academic Qualification and Attitude on Academic Performance of Junior Secondary School Students in Education District II, Lagos. S/N Contents, 1.

Prathak, R., & Bhatia, S. (2019). A study of the impact of educational qualifications of parents on the academic performance of students of class XI in English medium CBSE schools in PCMC area. Educational Resurgence, 1(1).

Sumbria, N. S. (2022, January 13). Rural schooling a challenge. Daily Excelsior. challenge/

Suri, K. (2017, January 17). Rural education in J&K. Daily Excelsior. https://www.dailyexcelsior. com/rural-education-jk/

Tankeleviciene, L., & Damaševirius, R. (2009). Characteristics of domain ontologies for web-based learning and their application for quality evaluation. Informatics in Education, 8(1), 131–152.




How to Cite

Panda, S., & Singh, R. (2024). Problems and Complexities in Rural Schools of the Himalayan Region: Challenges for Community Development. Journal of Extension Education, 34(4), 6932–6937.



Research Article